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How to prevent and extinguish fire accidents in petrochemical industry

作者:wuyanjie 人气:4451 发表时间:2016-06-25 10:06
First, the characteristics of petrochemical fire
Petrochemical fire smoke high temperature toxicity. Fire accidents in petrochemical enterprises is generally toxic and harmful gas (liquid) in a large number of loss, because the gas (liquid) mostly with high toxicity and easy to spread and easy combustion, explosion and other characteristics, extremely easy to cause poisoning accident clime large area pollution and a large number of personnel, and even casualties, in personnel dense local hazard is particularly serious.
The fire is developing fast and inflammable and explosive. Explosion is a significant feature of the fire in petrochemical industry. High calorific value of petroleum chemical fire, fierce fire, radiant heat, in the event of a fire, flames can instantly of tens of meters high, oil chemical plant after a fire, the heated container equipment prone to physical explosion, leakage of flammable gas or vapor prone to chemical explosion, and explosion and combustion often associated with each other. Whether it is physical explosion or chemical explosion will cause surrounding built (structure) of buildings collapsed, casualties, pipeline equipment, shift rupture, fuel spray flow, the scene has become more complex, for fire fighting has brought great difficulties. In addition, heavy oil and boil over, splashing, once occurred, so that a large number of flammable liquid diaspora, forming a large area fire flows.
Easy to form a three-dimensional fire. Petroleum chemical raw materials and products are flammable and explosive substances, including gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, lubricating oil, naphtha, aviation kerosene, chemical raw materials, paraffin, asphalt, residual. After the oil chemical production equipment dense and tall, a continuous three-dimensional layout and framework more holes, equipment explosion, flammable and explosive liquid or gas overflow, once at the initial stage of a fire control adverse, it will make the fire up, down, left and right spread rapidly, forming three-dimensional fire. In addition, the tempering phenomenon produced by fire, extremely easy to cause combustion and explosion of other equipment. Gas has better diffusion, when the from the device discharge, flowing around diffusion, in case of fire on the formation of large area burn; fly fire explosion of fire equipment or containers, equipment, such as the collapse of are easy to cause large area fire.
Difficult to save the fire. The process of petroleum and chemical products is complex, and involves many kinds of properties, physical and chemical properties, reaction process and product and complex. At the time of the fire accident, because of the different combustion properties of the material, need to choose different types of fire extinguishing agent; for equipment and fire in different parts, required the use of different fire extinguishing technique and tactics; sometimes also need plugging, transfer and other special operations intrusion, saves disposal difficult very large.
Smoke high temperature toxicity. Petrochemical fire easily lead to explosion, and even a series of explosions. After the explosion, in the range of possible formation of high temperature combustion zone, the fire quickly in all directions spread, and further form a greater area of combustion; thermal radiation, resulting in adjacent containers pipeline material rapidly booster, evaporation or decomposition, for fires to expand to create the conditions, increase the risk of fire instantly expand.
Two. How to prevent and extinguish the fire of petrochemical industry
Strengthen the government's territorial management responsibility. The implementation of Party and government accountability, the establishment of Party and government with responsibility, territorial management and corporate responsibility for the safety of production responsibility system, the implementation of the security responsibility to the post, the implementation of the head. Scientific and rational planning, combined with the petroleum chemical intensive areas and key characters of petrochemical enterprise, scale, according to the surrounding road, construction, pipeline network and other, rational division of the warning level, set up a security barrier, improve the level of safety management. Adhere to the regular investigation to establish petroleum chemical based to major hazard accidents hazard investigation work mechanism, regular organization of enterprise production, transfer and store the hidden links to conduct a comprehensive investigation, cogent accomplish "full coverage, zero tolerance, strict law enforcement, pragmatic.
Strengthen the main responsibility of enterprise security. Strengthen equipment maintenance, to ensure that every valve, each section of the pipeline, each process, each fixed fire facilities are fixed, positioning, posts, will be responsible for, all the facilities and equipment is always in safe and effective operation. Strengthen the construction of full-time fire team, equipped with high performance high jet car, foam vehicles and equipment, the establishment of professional and technical personnel consisting of plugging, transfer and close the valve and other treatment expert group to improve the first time disposal capacity. At the same time, strengthen the staff safety production and accident emergency management knowledge, skills training, to carry out regular training exercises. Strengthen the fire fighting emergency supplies reserve, guide enterprises to store enough foam, dry powder, sand, asbestos and other fire-fighting supplies, clear bulldozers, excavators and other large machinery and equipment mobilization way, improve early disposal capacity.
Strengthen the construction of special vehicle equipment. Focus on strengthening special goods vehicles equipped with and strengthen the heavy foam fire engine above flow 100L/s, tank fire engines, mobile foam gun, lifting height 30 meters above the lifted high injection fire engines, equipped with remote water supply system and multifunctional foam fire extinguishing agent, to solve the effective equipment, water supply capacity is weak, the foam liquid reserves lack of problems.
Strengthen the construction of public fire protection facilities. To strengthen the fire brigade station construction, rationally determine the urban layout of fire safety, the government will draw fire team station and urban infrastructure, unified planning, synchronous construction, to ensure that the "fast fill scores, is not owed to the new account". To strengthen fire hydrant and fire water construction, especially the petrochemical units surrounding within 10 km of the oceans, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and other all construction of fire water wharf. Sound maintenance and management mechanism, and actively coordinate the municipal, city

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